Hypotension - Low Blood Pressure Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors, Diagnosis

Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

Low blood pressure (arterial hypotonia) occurs very frequently in the population. As a result, a low blood pressure is present when the values are below 105 to 65 mmHg (millimeter of mercury column). Too low blood pressure often affects young, slender women. Arterial hypotonia is usually manifested with dizziness, fatigue, edema, or cardiac arrest. There are many ways to get the blood pressure back into life without medication. Here you can read how.

Low Blood Pressure Details:- Low blood pressure affects many people around the world. In general speech use, the blood pressure represents the pressure in the large arteries (vessels leading away from the heart). This pressure is determined on the one hand by the elasticity and the resistance of the vessel walls. In addition, the impact force and the frequency of the heart, ie how much blood volume per heart beat is conveyed into the circulation, has an influence on the blood pressure.

The blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury column (mmHg). The upper systolic value is measured at the moment the heart beats and ejects blood. The lower diastolic value refers to the relaxation phase of the heart as it fills with blood again. It is also important that a low blood pressure is merely a symptom or a measured value and not an independent disease.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), the target value should be around 120 to 80 mmHg. Many people suffer from the fact that their blood pressure is too low - especially young, slim women. Compared to hypertension, too low a blood pressure is rarely menacing, because the organs can not be damaged as long as the blood supply is maintained. However, a low blood pressure can become dangerous and lead to an impotence if the values fall too much. Arterial hypotonia can also be an indication of other organ diseases and should, therefore, be investigated on a regular basis. When is the blood pressure too low? Refer to the table below.

Low blood pressure readings,  remedies, treatment, diet, in pregnancy, headache

Low blood pressure values:-
Arterial hypotonia (low blood pressure) is divided into several forms:

Primary low blood pressure (essential hypotonia) :- Primary low blood pressure occurs most frequently and is characterized by the fact that the blood pressure is permanently too low for no apparent cause. Young, slim women are mostly affected. Especially younger people, who are physically not fit and move little, are also more vulnerable to low blood pressure. A low blood pressure or the tendency to it can be inherited.

Secondary low blood pressure:- If there is a secondary low blood pressure, this means that there is another physical cause. A low blood pressure is here a secondary episode - a symptom - of another disease. Among the causative underlying diseases are, for example, various cardiovascular diseases or a thyroid function. In the case of a strong loss of fluid, also in the form of bleeding, the blood volume decreases and the blood pressure drops. A low blood pressure also occurs as a side effect of various medications (sleeping and soothing agents, antidepressants or hypertensives).

Orthostatic low blood pressure:- Orthostasis is the upright body. An orthostatic hypotonia occurs when you stand up quickly from lying down and the blood in your legs. Thereby, less blood is available for the rest of the body and the brain is no longer properly perfused. In the normal case, the body can control it by narrowing the vessels in the legs and the blood not too much in the legs. At the same time, the heart increases its pumping work. In the case of orthostatic hypotonia, a low blood pressure results from the volume shift to which the body does not react adequately.

Low blood pressure during pregnancy:- In the first six months of pregnancy, a low blood pressure is normal. A permanently low blood pressure during pregnancy can endanger mother and child. If the blood pressure is too low, the uterus is not adequately perfused and the child is no longer adequately protected. A permanent under-supply of the child can lead to developmental disorders and increase the risk of complications at birth. For example, low blood pressure during pregnancy may be caused by the child pushing on the mother's vein (the large vein that leads back to the heart) and the flow of blood to the heart. Pregnancy-appropriate drugs that stimulate the circulation, there are only a few. Your use should always be discussed with a doctor.

Symptoms of Low blood pressure

Even if there are many complaints-free patients, low blood pressure causes symptoms. The reduced blood flow causes a counter-reaction of the body. The sympathetic nervous system is activated and the body converts into the "escape/combat mode". This reflexive counterreaction serves survival and dates back to prehistoric times. The heart rate is increased ("low blood pressure - high pulse" is a typical combination) in order to counter the lack of blood circulation.

Dizziness:- Many patients complain of dizziness in low blood pressure. Due to the lack of blood supply to the brain, there are visual disturbances ("star sight" or "black in front of the eyes"), earaches and dizziness. In the worst case, consciousness disorders can also lead to impotence. Such misfires are dangerous if there is a risk of falling or when driving.

Dizziness when changing position :- Often, low blood pressure causes dizziness. If the body tries to fight against the deficiency of blood circulation, a high pulse usually appears. Low blood pressure often also occurs during rapid changes from lying down to standing. The blood spills in the legs and the body takes some time to regulate the blood pressure again. The feeling of dizziness can also occur during bending.

Headache :- Also, this combination (low blood pressure + a headache) is not a rarity. By the throttled blood circulation in the head, it can come to stinging, pulsating headaches. A headache can be counteracted by drinking, by increasing the circulating blood volume. A walk in the fresh air improves the oxygen supply in the brain and also stimulates the circulation.

Fatigue :- Another common combination: low blood pressure + fatigue. Symptoms such as fatigue, concentration problems and drowsiness plague those affected and are the annoying consequences of diminished blood flow. Patients also suffer from tremors or sweating. The drive is diminished and those concerned need longer in the morning to "get into the aisles".

Dyspnoea :- Many sufferers report a feeling of tightness in the chest or stitches in the heart. Some patients also get bad air and suffer from dyspnoea. The blood vessels are placed close at low blood pressure in order to direct the blood volume to the vital organs, such as the heart and the brain. This can lead to a feeling of pressure. The skin is often cool and pale.

Many patients are affected by it: low blood pressure. Symptoms do not affect all affected persons. Especially young, slim women have often already got used to their low blood pressure. However, a rapid drop in blood pressure is noticeable in most people. If a low blood pressure causes symptoms and these occur frequently or very abruptly, a doctor should be consulted to clarify the cause.

All important to the typical signs of low blood pressure, see Low Blood Pressure Symptoms.

Low blood pressure causes and risk factors :- Reason for dizziness and fatigue is often a low blood pressure with various causes. Low blood pressure affects especially young, slim women. A lack of physical activity can also promote the disease.

Estimated low blood pressure (primary hypotonia) :- A low blood pressure frequently occurs when the desired set values of the body are slightly too low. The body has its own system to regulate blood pressure. In the throat arteries, there are small pressure-measuring cores, which can feel the blood pressure in the vessel. Their signals are passed on to the circulatory center in the brainstem. There, in turn, signals are sent to the blood vessels for dilatation or crowding. Thus the blood vessels are placed higher and the blood pressure drops. If the blood pressure is too low, the vessels are narrowed and the blood pressure increases. A low blood pressure is usually prevented by the body through a second mechanism of the body. When the blood pressure drops in the feeding renal pelvis, the kidney pours out the hormone renin, Which increases the blood pressure via a hormonal cascade. Both mechanisms for blood pressure regulation can be disturbed and a chronic low blood pressure is the result.

Dehydration :- A low blood pressure can also be caused by a reduced fluid volume in the body. If the body loses fluid by strong perspiration, too little drinking, diarrhea, vomiting or bleeding, the amount of circulating blood decreases. In this case, the blood flow is initially throttled in the peripheral organs in order to continue to blood the brain and coronary vessels. This is referred to as "circulatory centralization" since the blood flow is limited to the vital organs in the body and in the head in order to secure the blood supply there.

Secondary low blood pressure :- Low blood pressure, which occurs as a result of other diseases, can have the following causes: Diseases that can cause low blood pressure:
  • Thyroid function (hypothyroidism)
  • Subfunction of the adrenal cortex (Addison's disease)
  • Subfunction of the pituitary gland (pituitary insufficiency)
  • Heart disease (heart failure, rhythm disorders, pericarditis)
  • Salt deficiency (hyponatremia)
  • Venous weakness (varicose veins)
Medications for which a low blood pressure may occur as a side effect:
  • Psychotropic drugs (against depression, anxiety, insomnia)
  • Antiarrhythmics (against cardiac arrhythmia)
  • Antihypertensives (against hypertension)
  • Diuretics (water-purifying drugs)
  • Coronary medication (for angina pectoris: nitro sprays)
  • Vasodilators (vasodilators)
Orthostatic low blood pressure :- Here, a low blood pressure is caused by the shedding of the blood in the legs during rapid standing up. The brain is not adequately supplied with blood and dizziness or even fainting occurs. Possible causes that can lead to low orthostatic blood pressure:
  • Secondary low blood pressure
  • Disorder of the autonomic nervous system (for example, by diabetes mellitus)
  • Nerve cell damage in the brain (for example, by Parkinson 's disease, alcohol abuse)
  • Varicose veins
  • After a deep venous thrombosis (postthrombotic syndrome)

Examinations and diagnosis of Low blood pressure

In order to be able to diagnose "low blood pressure", repeated blood pressure measurements must be carried out. It is important that the measurements are carried out on different days and also at different times of the day. With the aid of the Schellong test, the physician can determine whether low blood pressure is caused by the lack of orthostatic regulation. The blood pressure and pulse rate are measured every 30 or 60 seconds while lying down. Subsequently, measurement is continued at the same rate during standing or under physical stress.

A somewhat more complex measuring method is the so-called tilting table test. In this case, the patient, who was diagnosed with a low blood pressure in advance, is tied onto a tipping table with two tethering straps. When lying down, blood pressure and pulse are measured for ten minutes. The table is tilted upwards by 60 degrees and then measured.

If a low blood pressure occurs suddenly or the blood pressure is very low, it is important to look for the cause. To avoid secondary arterial hypertension, ultrasound and blood tests are performed.

Low blood pressure treatment :- Nearly all people know it - a low blood pressure. Household remedies and simple measures provide relief for many patients. Proper drug therapy is only necessary if the patient suffers serious discomfort or is at a real risk.

Low blood pressure - what to do?
There are several simple measures that can lead to symptom relief.

Movement and physical activity :- A low blood pressure - or much more his symptoms - can be proven to improve with regular exercise and sports. This causes the circulation to go on, and symptoms such as dizziness and fatigue ring off. A low blood pressure often occurs in the morning after getting up. When lying down you can stretch your feet alternately and angled. This stimulates blood flow in the legs. When you get up, you should sit slowly at the bed edge before you slowly get up. Especially long-term sports such as jogging, swimming or cycling also stimulates the circulation in the long term.

Cold showers :- Should a low blood pressure occur again, a rapid change between warm and cold temperature helps. This causes the blood vessels to alternate and contract again. Through this change in blood circulation, the blood vessels are improved and the circulation is stimulated - the discomfort decreases. The easiest way is to shower from the feet upwards towards the buttocks. If an additional circulation-promoting brush or a massage sponge is used, an even better effect is achieved.

Nutrition :- A cup of coffee in the morning, as you know, makes you awake. Green or black tea, however, are equally beneficial and stimulate the circulation. A low blood pressure is also managed by some patients with the consumption of licorice. Licorice, oats, and legumes contain so-called saponins, which increase cortisol production in the body and increase the blood pressure. Often patients with low blood pressure have a strong need for salt. The salt from the food binds fluid in the body, which increases the volume in the vessels and increases the blood pressure. Increasing the amount of drinking also causes a low blood pressure to rise.

Low Blood Pressure Therapy :- Medications are often associated with side effects. Therefore, it should be attempted to increase the blood pressure once with non-drug measures (see above). There are several drugs that increase blood pressure:

Sympathomimetic:- This active ingredient group is most frequently used. Similar to the corporeal messenger's adrenaline and noradrenaline, they increase the return current to the heart by narrowing the blood vessels. At the same time, the heart rate is increased and low blood pressure is prevented. Possible side effects include cardiac asthma, cardiac arrhythmia, restlessness, and tremors. Often, the active substance etilefrine is used. The active substance dihydroergotamine is also frequently used and has a longer duration of action.

Erythropoietin:- Erythropoietin is a hormone that stimulates the maturation of red blood cells. Red blood cells transport oxygen in the blood. Erythropoietin may reduce the symptoms in patients who have a low blood pressure.

Low blood pressure - disease history and prognosis :- As a rule, low blood pressure is safe and does not lead to permanent damage. When is low blood pressure dangerous? If the blood pressure leads to such strong dizziness attacks that a circulatory collapse or an impotence follows. A low blood pressure during pregnancy is also dangerous and should be well observed.